Articles Tagged with: baldness
Male Pattern Baldness Linked to Increased COVID-19 Risks

Male Pattern Baldness Linked to Increased COVID-19 Risks

Are men who suffer from male pattern baldness more at risk for severe COVID-19 symptoms and more likely to die from the virus? Unlikely as it may seem for there to be a connection between the two conditions, researchers recently noticed a higher incidence of coronavirus-related deaths in bald men than those who do not experience hair loss.

As reported in London’s The Telegraph, scientists suspect that the link between COVID-19 fatalities and hair loss is found in androgens, male sex hormones that are cousins of other similar hormones such as testosterone. Androgens trigger follicle miniaturization and make hair more likely to fall out. But androgens may also increase the ability of the virus to attack cells in the body, increasing the likelihood that symptoms will be severe.

“We really think that baldness is a perfect predictor of severity,” said Carlos Wambier, a Brown University professor who had conducted studies on the subject, as quoted in the Telegraph article.

Wambier conducted a small study in Spain that found that bald men accounted for 79% of all males with coronavirus admitted to three Madrid hospitals. Another study involving prostate cancer in Italy found that patients who received androgen-deprivation therapy were only a quarter as likely to contract COVID-19 as men receiving other cancer treatments.

Statistics since the dawn of the pandemic show that men generally are 2.5 times more likely to die from COVID-19 than women. Pattern baldness may be a big reason behind the disparity.

This has lead researchers to consider the enticing possibility that anti-baldness treatments that focus on lowering androgen levels could also be helpful in slowing down the virus in men who become infected, giving their bodies more time to fight and recover. Studies are already underway to explore the potential efficacy of these treatments, though they are in their earliest stages.

The Miami Hair Institute Remains Committed To Helping Our Patients Through These Difficult Times

These are challenging and unprecedented times for all of us. At the Miami Hair Institute, we know how difficult and stressful things can be as we cope with the uncertainties and disruptions caused by COVID-19. If you are experiencing hair loss, that can make matters even more stressful. During this time, we remain committed to helping our clients address their hair loss issues safely and effectively through our advanced hair restoration surgical techniques, technology, and alternative non-invasive treatments. To receive your personalized evaluation and treatment plan, contact us online or call our office directly at 305-925-0222.

Is Baldness Linked with Aggressive Prostate Cancer?

Is Baldness Linked with Aggressive Prostate Cancer?Men who exhibit signs of balding may want to consider having a prostate exam sooner, rather than later. According to a new study published by the Journal of Clinical Oncology in late 2014, men who showed certain signs of baldness were more likely to develop an aggressive form of prostate cancer.

In the study, researchers point to two specific signs of baldness that men around age 45 should watch: Thinning frontal hairlines, and balding crowns. Based on the research, men who exhibited these signs of hair loss were up to 40% more like to develop prostate cancer compared to men of the same age who still had a full head of hair.

Diagnosis with the Norwood Classification

The Norwood Scale is a common method of diagnosing male pattern baldness. The scale maps the typical progression of hair loss in men, beginning with the slightest signs of thinning at the temporal regions (see Stage 1 below). In this study, the men who experienced a 40% greater risk of prostate cancer were classified as a Stage 3 or higher, using the chart above.

Is there cause for concern? According to one physician, the findings are probably not coincidental. However, more studies are needed to get a better idea of exactly how balding and prostate cancer might be linked. “The evidence is too provisional,” says Dr. Michael Cook, a senior study author and a National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigator. “We think that certain factors, such as genetics and male hormones, may underlie both [conditions]” (i).

Hair Loss Evaluation

For more information on hair loss evaluations in Miami, contact the Hair Transplant Institute of Miami at 305-925-0222.

Sources

(i) http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonfortenbury/2014/09/16/a-specific-form-of-baldness-linked-to-aggressive-prostate-cancer/

7 Shocking Stats About Hair Loss

For most men and women, just the thought of losing hair stirs immense feelings of fear and anxiety. But are those feelings warranted? A look at these 7 shocking hair loss statistics says yes, perhaps they are.

To illustrate: Did you know that about 50 million American men and women suffer with hair loss? Of those affected, would you ever imagine that 47% say they are willing to trade their life savings to regain their hair?

Take a moment to review the hair loss statistics below, and tell us what you think in the Comments section at the bottom of the page. For additional statistics related specifically to hair transplant, visit this list of ISHRS hair loss statistics.

Hair Loss Statistics

50-100: The number of hairs the average person loses each day.

Many men and women are surprised to learn that hair loss is technically always occurring. This is because hair grows in 3 stages: Anagen, categen, and telogen. In the telogen phase, growth ceases and the strand of hair falls from the follicle. That’s why the average person loses anywhere from 50 to 100 strands of hair each day, according to statistics gathered by the American Hair Loss Association.

35 million: Number of men in the United States who suffer with hair loss.

Hair loss disproportionately affects men, amounting to about 35 million cases in the U.S. alone. Of those affected, about 40% will show visible signs of hair loss by age 35. These signs are illustrated in the Norwood Classification, a diagram that shows the typical progression of pattern baldness.

21 million: Number of women in the United States who suffer with hair loss.

Although hair loss is more common among males than females, women still experience it at an alarmingly high rate. Moreover, hair loss affects women differently than men. The Ludwig Classification illustrates how female pattern baldness progresses in a more diffuse manner, making it much more difficult to detect and treat early.

85%: Percentage of male hair loss sufferers who use a topical foam treatment, like Rogaine®.

Minoxidil, better known by the brand name Rogaine®, is one of the most widely used non-surgical hair loss treatments. The topical foam is applied to the scalp daily, and it has shown tremendous effectiveness in helping hair loss sufferers keep their existing hair.

47%: Percentage of men and women who would trade their life savings for a new, full head hair.

Even in turbulent world economy, nearly half of all hair loss sufferers admit they would trade their life savings for a new, full head of hair. In a study conducted by the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery (ISHRS), more than 60% of respondents said they believed a new head of hair would translate to career advancement and higher earnings (i).

60%: Percentage of men and women who would choose a new head of hair over more money or friends.

This statistics further illustrates the desperation felt by individuals who suffer with hair loss, demonstrating a markedly higher desire for more hair over new friends and/or more money.

1 in 3: Number of men and women who would abstain from sex for life, if it meant a new head of hair.

This sobering statistic really puts things into perspective. More than 30% of men and women who suffer with hair loss say they are willing to give up sex for the rest of their lives in order to regain the hair of their youth.

85%: Percentage of people who cannot recognize a hair transplant procedure.

Surgical hair restoration has come a long way. Today’s hair transplant procedures are faster, more precise, and more comfortable than ever before. Best of all, they produce a result that is so natural in appearance that over 85% of people cannot tell when a hair transplant has been performed (ii).

What have you always wanted to know about hair loss?

Have questions about hair loss? Be sure to post a comment in the Comments section below, or contact our Institute to learn more about hair restoration procedures in Miami.

Sources

(i) “2010 Hair Transplant Challenge Survey.” International Society for Hair Restoration Surgery. Accessed 17 June 2013.

(ii) See above.

Stop Losing Hair

Hair loss is no laughing matter. In fact, losing hair is known to adversely affect personal, social, and professional life. Hair is one of the first things another person will notice about you, so it’s normal to feel uncomfortable with the idea of losing it.

Stop losing hair. If you are one of the millions of men and women around the world who suffer with hair loss, good news awaits: There are ways to make it stop. Some are non-surgical and are as easy as taking a pill or applying a topical foam each day. Others are more invasive, leveraging advanced surgical technologies and techniques to gently extract and transplant individual hairs (follicular units) from one area of the scalp to another.

Ways to Stop Hair Loss

There are many ways to stop losing hair. Everyone is different, and it’s important to remember that the best way to prevent long term hair loss is to consult a physician. Only a licensed hair loss professional can provide an accurate diagnosis and recommend an effective treatment plan. In addition to scheduling a hair loss evaluation, men and women who want to stop losing hair are wise to consider the following factors:

1. Nutrition

The body needs a variety of important vitamins and minerals to thrive each day. Along with skin, hair is one of the first parts of the body to show the effects of water, vitamin, and mineral deficiency. To stop and prevent hair loss, be sure to maintain a well-rounded diet rich in protein, biotin, vitamin E, vitamin A, and other important nutrients.

Visit our Foods for Healthy Hair and Healthy Hair Diet articles to learn more.

2. Stress

Stress is known to “shock” the hair follicles into a dormant state (i). Typically, this occurs after a serious event that generates a significant amount of mental or physical stress. Car accidents, surgeries, divorce, and loss of loved ones are just a few examples of situations that might trigger bouts of hair loss. Stay proactive in managing stress to stop hair loss and prevent other mental/physical ailments.

3. Medications

There are a number of prescription medications that may cause hair loss. However, *it is important to always consult a physician prior to changing your medication regimen. If you suspect a medication is causing you to lose hair, speak with your physician to explore alternative medications.

4. Hormonal Imbalance

Hormonal imbalances are also known to cause permanent or temporary hair loss. Pregnancy and thyroid disease are just two examples of conditions that cause hormonal imbalances that may lead to hair loss.

Visit our article on Hair Loss and Pregnancy to learn more.

Professional Hair Loss Evaluation

Stop losing hair, today. At the Hair Transplant Institute of Miami, our surgeons and medical staff represent the very best of South Florida. Call our office today to for more information on hair loss evaluations and treatment recommendations designed to put a stop to hair loss.

Learn if your are a candidate for hair transplant online, or call our office at 305-925-0222.

Sources:

(i) “Effluviums.” American Hair Loss Association.

What is Alopecia Barbae?

What is Alopecia BarbaeThe condition alopecia barbae is a very specific form of alopecia, or hair loss. Whereas traditional alopecia areata describes a condition in which hair loss occurs throughout the body, alopecia barbae describes hair loss that occurs in the beard. For this reason, alopecia barbae is noticeable only amongst men, as lower levels of testosterone in women typically prevent the formation of facial hair (specifically beards) altogether.

November is the perfect time to raise awareness for this unique condition, as this month ignites the launch of two body-hair-awareness movements that rally the world together in admiration of beards, mustaches, and other exceptional displays of follicular assets. The first campaign is No Shave November; the second is Mustache November, or Movember for short.

No matter which movement you identify with, these two awareness campaigns give participants a platform to showcase their beards and natural hair growth. As the month progresses, participants gather donations from friends, family, and curious individuals from across the globe, all to benefit charities of their choice.

Bald Patches in Beards

It may shock the masses, but bald patches in beards are common among men. Bald patches can appear under the chin as well as throughout the sides of the neck, cheeks, and along the upper lip/mustache region.

Are Beard Transplants an Option?

Beard transplants are indeed an option for men who wish to reverse the signs of thinning or balding patches. In fact, British surgeons report seeing a surge in men requesting surgical beard restoration over the past year (i). In the UK, hair transplant is reported as the most common form of cosmetic surgery for men. Men seeking beard transplants often inquire about a specific look, referencing the famous facial hair of Hollywood A-listers like Brad Pitt.

How Does a Beard Transplant Work?

A beard transplantation procedure works in much the same way as transplant procedure that is performed to restore the scalp. Things begin with a hair loss consultation, during which the patient meets with a qualified hair loss professional to determine the likely cause of hair loss and plan an effective treatment regimen.

After making sure the patient is a candidate for a beard transplant, the surgeon will specify a donor area from which hair will be extracted for the procedure. The donor area typically resides along the rear or side regions of the patient’s scalp, areas known to provide quality donor hair with little threat of balding in the future.

Once hair is extracted, surgeons transplant individual follicular units to restore bald areas and create a natural-looking beard.

Learn More About Hair Transplant Procedures

At the Hair Transplant Institute of Miami, it is our pleasure to provide men and women with the most comprehensive methodology and treatment technologies for treating hair loss. Most recently, our hair loss Institute became 1 of fewer than 20 clinics to offer the first FDA-approved hair transplant robot, the ARTAS® System.

Our team represents South Florida’s finest surgeons, nurses, technicians, and staff. We hold patients’ pursuit of a fuller, more natural head of hair in the highest regard, and we invite you to schedule a hair loss consultation online or call our practice directly at 877-443-9070.

Sources:

(i) “Beard Implants Growing.” Daily Mail. Accessed 3 November 2013.

ISHRS Hair Loss Statistics

ISHRS Hair Loss StatisticsIt is estimated that 530 million American men and women suffer with signs of thinning, shedding, or balding. According to recent statistics gathered by the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery (ISHRS), a majority of individuals choose to accept the state of their hair and live a life plagued with the unhappiness, social anxiety, and diminished self confidence. Yet statistics gathered by the ISHRS demonstrate that individuals who suffer with hair loss are ready and willing to make serious sacrifices to regain the hair of their youth. These hair loss statistics also illustrate that hair transplant surgery might be Americans’ best bet for overcoming the profoundly negative side effects of hair loss.

Below are the top hair loss statistics presented by the ISHRS in the publication, 2010 Hair Transplant Challenge Survey. For a full copy of this report, readers are invited to visit the URL in the Sources section at the end of this article.

Hair Loss Statistics Every Man and Woman Should Know

1. About 25% of Americans said that hair loss made them feel either less attractive or self conscious.

When it comes down to it, both men and women feel the social insecurity of hair loss. According to the ISHRS report, men were more likely to feel “less attractive” because of hair loss. Overall, younger people were most likely to feel either “less attractive” or “self conscious” with visible signs of balding.

2. Less than 5% of respondents said hair loss did not bother them.

It’s no surprise that so many men and women do feel bothered by hair loss. Hair is one of the first things we notice about another person, and many individuals associate attractive hairstyles with the formation of a good first impression. What is surprising, however, is just how small the percentage of men and women who are not bothered by hair loss at all. At 5%, this statistic demonstrates how far-reaching the negative mental and emotional side effects of hair loss can be.

3. About 73% of respondents said they would trade a personal possession for more hair.

It’s clear that men and women are prepared to make serious sacrifices to preserve their luscious locks, as evidenced by the 7 in 10 (73.1%) respondents who said they would trade a “treasured personal possession” for a shot at more hair.

4. About 50% of men and women say noticeable hair loss is a physical trait that makes them feel the most self conscious.

A majority of both men and women agree that signs of thinning, shedding, or balding hair make them feel more self conscious than most other traits. Specifically, respondents said hair loss made them feel more self conscious than being overweight, having skin or complexion problems, or having crooked teeth.

5. Nearly half of respondents would rather have more hair than friends or money.

When it comes to making serious life changes, nearly half of men and women agree they would rather have more hair (43.2%) than money or friends.

6. A majority (61.9%) of men and women felt having more hair would translate to greater success in advancing their career.

Whereas most of the aforementioned statistics have illustrated how men and women feel about their own hair loss, this statistic demonstrates how individuals feel they are perceived by others. When asked whether or not more hair might lead to a more successful career, 67.6% of younger respondents and 59.3% of older respondents said yes.

7. Of all respondents, only about 26% cited unnatural appearance as the reason they would hesitate to have a hair transplant procedure.

If you’re concerned that a hair transplant might look unnatural or “pluggy,” it’s probably the result of 1980s and 90s pop culture. Americans are beginning to understand that hair restoration and transplant technologies have significantly evolved since the 80s, as evidenced by this particular statistic. To learn more, readers may wish to read our article on the evolution of hair loss treatment.

8. Over 85% of respondents could not identify a patient who had a transplant operation.

This statistic illustrates a vital truth: Most Americans cannot tell whether or not a person has received a transplant, even if the photos are displayed right in front of them (as they were in this study). This is encouraging for individuals who may quickly dismiss the idea of a transplant for fear public embarrassment or ridicule, demonstrating instead that today’s technologies and procedures are nearly undetectable.

9. Over 65% of participants said patients who had a transplant procedure looked younger, healthier, and more attractive.

In addition to being nearly undetectable, hair transplants seem to produce results that are aesthetically pleasing. When presented with patients’ before and after photos, a majority of respondents (65%) said patients looked “younger,” “healthier,” and “more attractive” after their procedure.

This health report has been produced by the Hair Transplant Institute of Miami. For additional information on our Institute, including hair loss evaluation and consultation services, readers are invited to contact our office directly at 1-877-443-9070.

Sources for this report include:

(i) “2010 Hair Transplant Challenge Survey.” International Society for Hair Restoration Surgery. Accessed 17 June 2013.

Can Prescription Medications Cause Hair Loss?

Can Prescription Medications Cause Hair LossPrescription medications can be just as chemically complex as the individuals to whom they are prescribed. For this reason, it is difficult to predict exactly how a specific medication will affect the individual who is taking it. Prior to taking any prescription medication, patients are cautioned to always discuss the ingredients, dosage, and potential side effects with their physician. After having a thorough and straightforward conversation about the medication, your goals, and the possible side effects, it is important to note that prescription medications may impact hair health in the following ways: Hair thinning, hair loss, change in hair texture, and change in hair color.

Moreover, patients are urged to discuss how prescription medications may or may not have a lingering effect on their bodies. When a medication causes one of the above side effects, for example, it is not uncommon for the effects to last up to 1 year or more after regular dosage has ceased.

Types of Prescription Pills That May Cause Hair Loss

The following are the most common types of prescription medications (most commonly prescribed in pill form) that have an impact on the thickness, prevalence, texture, or color of hair (i):

Thyroid Medications. Thyroid medications may contribute to hair loss by encouraging the synthesis of DHT on the scalp. To learn more, please visit our article on hypothyroidism and hair loss.

Prescription Medications for Cancer Treatment. Cancer-fighting drugs have a simple goal: To kill fast-growing cancer cells. Unfortunately, these medications may also kill normal, healthy body cells like hair follicles. As a result, such medications may cause widespread hair loss, very quickly.

Drugs That Treat Epilepsy. Sodium valproate, a leading drug for the treatment of epilepsy, has been shown in recent studies to cause hair loss among up to 3.5% of patients.

Antidepressants. Drugs like Prozac, lithium, and other medications for mood disorders have been known to cause temporary hair loss among up to 15% of those prescribed.

Contraceptive Medicines. “The Pill”, as it’s most widely known, is a contraceptive medication and an anti-androgen. As such, it may restrict testosterone levels and prevent hair loss for women while taking the medication. It is thought that “coming off” The Pill may then make it more apparent that hair is thinning or balding, as an anti-androgen is no longer able to mask the signs.

Acne Medications. Vitamin A is known to protect hair follicles from damage and promote growth. Unfortunately, most acne medications contain a concentrated form of vitamin A called retinoid that may have the direct opposite effect. In some studies, retinoid has been shown to make hair follicles dormant, thereby causing hair to thin or shed.

Prevent Hair Loss in 3 Easy Steps

To prevent hair loss from becoming a serious issue, it is recommended that the following 3 steps be followed:

1. Monitor Your Hair for Changes

Early detection of hair loss symptoms is the key to maintaining a naturally beautiful head of hair. It’s easy task, and daily check-ups can highlight significant changes in texture, thickness, or density that can be clues that a prescription medication is causing side effects. In general:

Women: Check for a widening “part” when styling your hair. You may also want to review the top 4 signs of hair loss in women.

Men: Pay particular attention to the density and spread of the hair at the crown of the head (a spot where pattern-baldness most commonly originates).

2. If Changes Occur, Consult Your Physician Immediately

When taking a prescription medication, always consult your physician immediately after any side effects are observed. Patients are also cautioned to never stop taking a medication—or start taking a new medication—without first consulting their physician. When the physician who prescribed your medication is not a dermatologist or hair transplant surgeon, you may want to follow-up with a specialist regarding hair restoration.

3. Follow-up with a Specialist Regarding Hair Restoration

Finally, patients who experience hair loss due to a prescription medication may wish to discuss hair restoration options with a specialist. Hair transplant surgeons specialize in the treatment of thinning, shedding, or balding hair among men and women of any age. From subtle eyelash transplants to comprehensive FUE procedures that span the crown of the head, transplant surgeons are well equipped to treat nearly any form of hair loss.

Sources for this article include:

(i) Dobson, Roger. “Bad Hair Day? Blame it On Your Medicine.” URL: dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2214841/Bad-hair-day-Blame-medicine.html#ixzz290mYjVod. Accessed Oct. 9th, 2012.

Exclusive: Researchers Find Vitamin D May Stimulate Hair Growth

Exclusive- Researchers Find Vitamin D May Stimulate Hair GrowthIn an effort to find a cure for baldness, research teams from around the world are investigating ways to reawaken dormant hair follicles. These tiny bulb-shaped structures are located just beneath the surface of the skin (pictured left), and they supply growing hair with blood, oxygen, and other life-sustaining nutrients. When hair follicles become traumatized, damaged, or otherwise inactive, the growth of new hair stops and pattern baldness begins. In this way, an individual’s head of hair (quite literally) lives and dies by the health of the follicles beneath the skin. New research suggests that vitamin D, along with the receptors in the skin that bind to the nutrient, may play a significant role in promoting healthy follicles and hair growth.

Got Milk? Researchers Say Vitamin D is “Crucial for the regeneration of hair”

Thanks in part to wildly successful 1995 “Got Milk?” advertising campaign by Goodby Silverstein & Partners, we all know that the calcium and vitamin D in milk help develop strong bones and prevent osteoporosis. The health benefits of vitamin D were studied long before that campaign, but traditional research focused primarily on vitamin D and bone development.

Now, however, new research shows vitamin D may be “crucial for the regeneration of hair,” (i). Hair transplant surgeons have also credited the receptors for vitamin D—the tiny “keyholes” in which the vitamin “keys” fit when being utilized by the body—as critical in promoting healthy hair follicle function.

Researchers report that creating a vitamin D supplement to prevent hair loss is tricky, however. For one, too much vitamin D may cause calcium accumulation in the blood. In turn, calcium accumulation may cause weakness or problems with the kidneys. For this reason, researchers are “really aiming to manipulate vitamin D or vitamin D receptors only in the skin,” explains Dr. Oda of the VA Medical Center in San Francisco. This would help individuals better utilize the vitamin D in their system, rather than introduce more vitamin D at the risk of developing other health issues.

And while a vitamin D supplement that cures baldness may seem futuristic and fanciful, there are technologies available today that are designed to promote natural hair growth by stimulating hair follicles.

Enter: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) for hair.

Promoting Follicle Health and Hair Growth with LLLT

LLLT stands for low level laser treatment, and it is a relatively new and exciting technology for the medical world. LLLT uses safe, FDA certified lasers to stimulate cellular respiration by way of phototherapy. In turn, this increases the cell’s ability to produce energy. But how do laser-light exposure, enhanced cellular respiration, and increased energy production help to reverse hair loss?

According to new research, an improvement in cellular respiration leads a series of biochemical reactions that stimulate the delivery of oxygen and nutrients directly to the hair follicle (vi). Most important is the ability of the patient to receive comprehensive LLLT exposure on a regular basis—usually 3 times per week for about 20 minutes per session.

The Hair Transplant Institute of Miami is pleased to offer the LaserCap™ LLLT device for thinning hair. To learn more about LLLT for thinning hair, please join Dr. Nusbaum as he explains the effectiveness of the treatment and the LaserCap™ device in the video below:

Learn More About the LaserCap™

To learn more about hair restoration or low level laser hair therapy with the LaserCap™, please schedule an appointment with the Hair Transplant Institute of Miami.  Readers are also invited to call our front desk at 305.925.0222 to speak directly with a friendly member of our office.

At the Hair Transplant Institute of Miami, we understand that hair loss can impact your personal, social, and professional life.  We’re committed to making a difference in the lives and well-being of our patients, and we look forward to exceeding your expectations with only the best technologies and most effective procedures.

 

Sources for this article include:

(i) Wang, Shirley S. “The Search for a Baldness Cure.” 12 September 2012.

(ii) Brosseau, L.; Welch, V.; Wells, G. A.; De Bie, R.; Gam, A.; Harman, K.; Morin, M.; Shea, B. et al. (2005). Brosseau, Lucie. ed. “Low level laser therapy (Classes I, II and III) for treating rheumatoid arthritis”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD002049. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002049.pub2. PMID 16235295.

(iii) Jamtvedt, G.; Dahm, K. T.; Christie, A.; Moe, R. H.; Haavardsholm, E.; Holm, I.; Hagen, K. B. (2007). “Physical Therapy Interventions for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: an Overview of Systematic Reviews”. Physical Therapy 88 (1): 123–136. doi:10.2522/ptj.20070043. PMID 17986496.

(iv) Chow, R.; Johnson, M.; Lopes-Martins, R.; Bjordal, J. (Nov 2009). “Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials.”. Lancet 374 (9705): 1897–1908. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61522-1. PMID 19913903.

(v) Hamblin, Michael R. “Mechanisms of Low Level Light Therapy.” (2008): n. pag. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.

(vi) Hamblin, Michael R. “Low Level Laser Light Therapy.” (2012). n. pag. Web. 17 Sep. 2012. Click Here to Read This Article.

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